Any data that is personally collected by you this does not mean collecting off the internet. However, if you know the average income of those 12 areas census data you can them rank them 1 to 12 and then randomly or systematically pick a district from each quartile giving you a more representative sample. This is very hard to achieve because even the design of data collection forms are influenced by people’s opinion. When designing traffic and pedestrian counts keep the forms simple. In that case specify the equipment used, how measurements have been taken and how they have been recorded. Secondary data is data that has been collected by another person or research team ie.

Some practical experience, however limited, of Coursework methodology is desirable in preparation for this paper. It is very simple to understand and carry out. These are the most common answers, of which at least two should always be applicable. A stopwatch is used to record time, eg. You place the object to be measured inside the calliper and then close the calliper and read off the measurement normally centimetres or millimetres because the object is small.

This latter method is not as accurate because the table tennis ball will be slowed because of friction with the air.

Wind is measured in the direction that the wind is coming from. This is a type of survey that looks at how globalised a settlement or a section of a settlement is.

Questionnaires — Questionnaires can be oral or written to gain information from an individual or a group of individuals. References should be made to the range of aspects involved in the route to geographical enquiry for Coursework assignments, such as formulating aims and hypotheses, using enquiry skills to collect data, presentation techniques igcse geography alternative to coursework display data, making analyses of data and the formulation of conclusions.

It is very important igcse geography alternative to coursework you test your data collection forms to ensure that you ask all the right igcse geography alternative to coursework and your collection forms contain all the right categories.

Candidates should be familiar with river measurements of channel width, depth, speed of flow and the size and shape of bedload; beach studies of beach profile, the size and shape of pebbles and the movement of beach material and weather study instruments closely linked to Theme 2. Flowmeters are used for measuring the velocity of rivers. Alternatively, the weight of a rock may be recorded uing a spring balance and a plastic bag.

Calipers may be used to measure the length long axis of pebbles.

Paper 4: Alternative to coursework – The Geography Study School

Infiltrometers are used to measure infiltration rates of different surfaces. Closed-ended questions give a set possibility of answers, and participants usually tick their responses.

In systematic sampling, the samples are selected from a list of elements in a regular pattern eg. Compasses are very simply used for working out direction.

Even with a systematic sample you may end up with an unrepresentative sample e. Once you have completed the index you add up the marks to give an area an overall score.

Therefore it will probably be necessary to only investigate a sample. Advantages Disadvantages Systematic Sampling Because you are following a pattern you will get better coverage of an area or sample group. Gradeometers are great for measuring the angle igcse geography alternative to coursework small slopes.

What have you enjoyed about El Salvador? Maps, recording sheets, field sketches and annotated photographs may all igcse geography alternative to coursework used to record candidate observations.

You can put the quadrat over the area you want to sample and then using a random number table or calculator, select a square to collect the sample from. Some responses might not be relevant to your research Respondents may not understand the question and give you an irrelevant response Results are very hard to analyse using graphs or tables.

If you are just looking at total numbers then you can make a simple tally chart, if you look at spatial distribution you need a base map and an appropriate key. Igcse geography alternative to coursework chains are good at measuring this because they sink and adopt the shape of the wetted perimiter. Compass points are used to give wind direction.

Roundness index is basically used to measure the shape igcse geography alternative to coursework an object. You place the gradeometer on the slope, as the legs adjust the slope you can simply read the slope angle, using the protractor in the top corner.

You are getting the respondents personal opinion. Sediments size and structure may be recorded along different coast lines to investigate transport and erosion processes and the relationship between sediments and other factors such as beach profile. You can annotate and label them. This is when data collection is not influenced by people’s personal opinion.

A hypothesis is a prediction or statement that you make before your data collection. More detail on these fieldwork techniques can be found at the Royal Geographical Society. You can use a variety of primary and secondary data. Igcse geography alternative to coursework gauges should be placed on grass, because if they are placed on concrete, extra water can splash in. When recording changes in river depth, beach profile or changes in vegetation you may only take a sample every 5 metres.

Flow meters have a small propeller that is placed under the surface of the water. Probably the most useful secondary data is census data. River velocity rate of water movement varies across a stream: The mercury sits in the u-bend of the thermometer. Igcse geography alternative to coursework Blog via Email Enter your email address to follow this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email.